umstek blog

Text cases in programming

☕️ 2 min read

When coding, text cases become an important factor if you want to maintain your code up to a high standard, following best practices. Different languages follow different naming conventions for variables, constants etc. Here we discuss some of the different types of text casing and their usages in some popular languages.

Camel Case

Spaces are omitted and first letter of each word is capitalized. Looks like a camel with many humps. Other names: Pascal Case, Bumpy Caps, Upper Camel Case.
e.g.: CreateCatDetailsPage, GiveMeAHug, XmlHttpRequest (Note how popular abbreviations are converted.)
C#/VB (VB is case insensitive) method names

Headless Camel Case

Spaces are omitted and first letter of each word except the first word is capitalized. As implied by the name, looks like a camel without its head.
e.g.: getCatDetails, giveMeAHug
Java method and variable names

Snake Case

Looks like snakes, with the words of phrases are separated with undescores (_) rather than spaces.
e.g.: get_snake_details, give_me_a_hug
Python/Ruby function and variable names

Screaming Snake Case

Screaming most of the time means making all the text uppercase. This case is the same as snake case except that all letters are capitalized.
e.g.: SNAKE_SPEED_FACTOR, MAX_SNAKE_AGE
In most programming languages, constants are named using screaming snake case.

Kebab Case / Lisp Case

This one does not have a standard name but called with names like Caterpillar Case, Spine Case, or Hyphenated.
e.g.: max-time-limit, font-family
CSS, Lisp

Train Case

This one is the same as the above, but first letters of all words are capitalized.
e.g.: Train-Case

COBOL Case

Looks more like a screaming Lisp case. Hyphenated words with all caps.
e.g.: MAGIC-NUMBER
COBOL

Studly Caps

Uppercase letters and lowercase letters are mixed. I’m curious whether this is used in any kind of programming.
e.g.: StUdLyCaPs


If you know of more, or if you want to add anything, need clarifications, please comment below. 😄